Power Generation

Power Generation, power generation pdf,

Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy. For utilities in the electric power industry, it is the stage prior to its delivery (transmission, distribution, etc.) to end users or its storage (using, for example, the pumped-storage method).

Electricity is not freely available in nature, so it must be "produced" (that is, transforming other forms of energy to electricity). Production is carried out in power stations (also called "power plants"). Electricity is most often generated at a power plant by electromechanical generators, primarily driven by heat engines fueled by combustion or nuclear fission but also by other means such as the kinetic energy of flowing water and wind. Other energy sources include solar photovoltaics and geothermal power.

The global power generation market is expected to decline from $1166.9 billion in 2019 to $1147.9 billion in 2020 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of -1.7%. The decline is mainly due to economic slowdown across countries owing to the COVID-19 outbreak and the measures to contain it. The market is then expected to recover and grow at a CAGR of 5% from 2021 and reach $1332.3 billion in 2023.  Asia Pacific was the largest region in the global power generation market, accounting for 42% of the market in 2019. Western Europe was the second largest region accounting for 23% of the global power generation market. Africa was the smallest region in the global power generation market.  Digital technologies are increasingly making their way into the power generation industry. Digital technologies such as smart grids, sensors and smart meters provide companies and customers with an accurate and real-time account of power usage. These technologies help improve productivity, efficiency, safety, compliance and reliability in power generation, which results in improved asset management, planning, execution, and an improved level of service with high customer satisfaction.  Companies in the power generation industry that have adopted digital technologies include Duke Energy, Engie, National Grid and NextEra.

The major players in the global power generation market are EDF Group, Enel SpA, Engie S.A., E.ON SE, Uniper SE

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Cogeneration power plant simultaneously generates both electricity and useful heat from a common fuel source. It produces heat for industrial processes and uses a recovery boiler to generate electricity. This plant includes reciprocating engines, combustion turbines, micro-turbines, backpressure steam turbines, and fuel cells.



Geothermal power plant technology is used to convert hydrothermal fluids to electricity. There are three geothermal power plant technologies being used to convert hydrothermal fluids to electricity. The conversion technologies are dry steam, flash, and binary cycle. The type of conversion used depends on the state of the fluid (whether steam or water) and its temperature. Dry steam power plants systems are the first type of geothermal power generation plants built. They use the steam from the geothermal reservoir as it comes from wells, and route it directly through turbine/generator units to produce electricity. Flash steam plants are the most common type of geothermal power generation plants in operation today. They use water at temperatures greater than 360°F (182°C) that is pumped under high pressure to the generation equipment at the surface. Binary cycle geothermal power generation plants differ from dry steam and flash steam systems in that the water or steam from the geothermal reservoir never comes in contact with the turbine/generator units.



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